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Cisgenderism refers to the assumption that, due to human sexual differentiation, one's gender is determined solely by a biological sex of male or female (based on the assumption that all people must have either an XX or XY sex-chromosome pair, or, in the case of cisgenderism, a bivalent male or female expression), and that trans people are inferior to cisgender people due to being in "defiance of nature".
Harassment and violence directed against transgender people is often called trans bashing, and can be physical, sexual or verbal.
A high percentage report being victims of sexual violence.
Some are refused healthcare or suffer workplace discrimination, including being fired for being transgender, or feel under siege by conservative political or religious groups who oppose laws to protect them.
The words transphobia and transphobic were added to the Oxford English Dictionary in 2013, together with transperson, transman, transwoman.
Transfeminist theorist and author Julia Serano argues in her book Whipping Girl that transphobia is rooted in sexism, and locates the origins of both transphobia and homophobia in what she calls "oppositional sexism", the belief that male and female are "rigid, mutually exclusive categories, each possessing a unique and nonoverlapping set of attributes, aptitudes, abilities, and desires".
Along with lesbophobia, biphobia, homophobia and transphobia are members of the family of terms used when intolerance and discrimination is directed toward LGBT people.
These authors argue that the assumption that men's acceptable sexuality is based on category-specific sexual arousal while women's acceptable sexual behavior is said to be due to lower sex drive and especially higher sexual inhibitions causes allegations that transsexual people have neither safety system in the brain and are sex criminals, and recommend information about flaws in studies that claim to show such sex differences (including the possibility that fear of being alleged to be inappropriately sexually aroused may deter more men than women from taking part in sexual arousal studies) as a remedy.Its meaning and use typically parallel those of xenophobia.The adjectival form transphobic describes things or qualities related to transphobia, and the noun transphobe denotes someone who harbors transphobia.Transphobia is a range of negative attitudes, feelings or actions toward transgender or transsexual people, or toward transsexuality.Transphobia can be emotional disgust, fear, violence, anger, or discomfort felt or expressed towards people who do not conform to society's gender expectation.
In the Western world, there have been gradual changes towards the establishment of policies of non-discrimination and equal opportunity.