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Chaadaev (1794-1856), who not surprisingly also pinned blame for the country's position in world affairs on its Orthodox faith.
Others, particularly ethnic Russians, alarmed by what they took to be Masaryk's implicit denigration of their intellectual character, have denied that Russian philosophy suffered from a veritable absence of epistemological inquiry. Lossky (1870-1965), Russian philosophers admittedly have, as a rule, sought to relate their investigations, regardless of the specific concern, to ethical problems.
Despite the difficulties, we can distinguish five major periods in Russian philosophy.
In the first period (The Period of Philosophical Remarks), there is a clear emergence of something resembling what we would now characterize as philosophy.
The rise of Russian philosophy that was not beholden to religion and politics also began in this period.
In the fourth period (The Soviet Era), there were significant concerns about the primacy of the natural sciences.
More characteristic of Russian philosophy, for Zenkovsky, is its (that is, a concern with the human condition and humanity's ultimate fate).
However, he makes clear that the Russian predilection for unequivocal acceptance or total negation of a viewpoint stems, at least to a large degree, from the native Orthodox faith.
This article provides a historical survey of Russian philosophers and thinkers.
It emphasizes Russian epistemological concerns rather than ontological and ethical concerns, hopefully without neglecting or disparaging them.
Many subsumed philosophy under the scope of religion or politics, and the discipline was evaluated primarily by whether it was of any utility.
The third period (The Emergence of Professional Philosophy) showed an increase in many major Russian thinkers, many of which were influenced by philosophers of the West, such as Plato, Kant, Spinoza, Hegel, and Husserl.
No consensus exists on which works it encompasses and which authors made decisive contributions.