Elucidating regulatory mechanisms downstream Sexchatnumber
Notably, one mi RNA can regulate the expression of many genes, and one gene can also be regulated by multiple mi RNAs.
Thus, mi RNA and its target genes comprise a complicated interactive network, accompanied by various transcription factors and signaling molecules, which are all involved in carcinogenesis [ 10 ].
In this review, we primarily illustrate the detailed regulatory mechanisms of mi RNA in tumor radiosensitivity from diverse aspects, including the modulation of DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint, apoptosis, radio-related signal transduction pathways and TME.
We also highlight the clinical perspectives of mi RNA in the future diagnosis and treatment of tumors and further present the significance of exploring new mechanisms and discovering novel targets to improve the therapeutic effects of radiotherapy.
Three characteristics of tumor tissue affect the consequences of radiotherapy.
Finally, the helicase degrades one of the complementary strands leaving a mature single-strand to exert biological functions [ 8 ].Radiotherapy- or ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage in tumors triggers the DNA damage response (DDR) and activates multiple intracellular signaling transduction pathways involved in post-transcriptional regulation.Activation of DDR also determines whether cells repair DNA damage or undergo apoptosis when too much damage has occurred [ 16 ].In this way, it functions by targeting the messenger RNA (m RNA) of target genes to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and ultimately influences target gene translation and protein expression [ 9 ].Multiple steps are involved in the regulation of target genes by mi RNA.
Micro RNA (mi RNA) influences carcinogenesis at multiple stages and it can effectively control tumor radiosensitivity by affecting DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint, apoptosis, radio-related signal transduction pathways and tumor microenvironment.