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He also made the appointment of the grand sheikh the prerogative of the Egyptian president, just as the appointment of any other state official.
Orthodox ulama or "the religious establishment" found themselves in a difficult position during the wave of Islamic activism that swept through Egypt in the 1970s and 1980s.
To maintain their influence in the country, the ulama espoused more conservative stances.
After 1974, for example, many al-Azhar ulama, who had acquiesced to family planning initiatives in the 1960s, openly criticized government efforts at population control.
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These reforms permitted department heads to be drawn from outside the ranks of the traditionally trained orthodox ulama.
Politically organized Muslims who seek to purge the country of its secular policies are referred to as "Islamists." Egypt's largely uneducated urban and rural lower classes are intensely devoted to Islam, but they usually lack a thorough knowledge of the religion.
Even village religious leaders usually have only a rudimentary knowledge of Islam.
In the late 10th century, the Shia Ismaili caliphate of the Fatimids made Egypt their center and Cairo their capital.
Egypt flourished and the Fatimids developed an extensive trade network in both the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean.
Some devout Muslims believe that there can be no dichotomy between the sacred and the secular.